Walton’s Argumentation Schemes


The Argumentation Schemes below are taken from Douglas Walton’s book Argumentation Schemes for Presumptive Reasoning.  If you are interested in using these schemes I would suggest that you read Walton’s book, as their utility may not be apparent without the background theory concerning presumptive reasoning.

Critical Questions appear in note boxes, and are labeled with the question mark icon pictured below.

The critical questions are numbered as they appear in Argumentation Schemes for Presumptive Reasoning, for easy reference.


Argumentation Schemes