Research on Critical Thinking & Argument Mapping

– Alvarez, C., Does Philosophy improve Critical Thinking Skills? 2007. A meta-analysis of resarch on the effectivity of different methods to develop critical thinking skills. Click here for a map of the conclusions. For the meta-analysis itself click here ( see especially Chapter 5).

Cahill, Ann J., Bloch-Schulman, Stephen, Argumentation Step-By-Step. Teaching Philosophy, Volume 35, issue 1 March 2012, 41-62.

– Davies, W.M., ‘Not quite right’ : helping students to make better arguments. Teaching in Higher Education. Vol.13, No. 3, June 2008, 327-340.

Davies, W.M., Concept Mapping, Mind Mapping and Argument Mapping: What are the differences and do they matter? 2007.

– Dwyer, C., Hogan, M., & Stewart, I. (2012): An evaluation of argument mapping as a method of enhancing critical thinking performance in e-learning environments. Metacognition and Learning, 7(3), 219-244.

– Dwyer, C., Hogan, M., & Stewart, I. (2013): An examination of the effects of argument mapping on students ‘ memory and comprehension performance. Thinking Skills and Creativity, 8(0), 11-24. doi:

– Eftekhari, M., Sotoudehnama, E., Marandi, S., Computer-aided argument mapping in an EFL setting: does technology precede traditional paper and pencil approach in developing critical thinking? Education Technology Research, February 2016.

– Elsegood, S.,Teaching Critical Thinking in an English for Academic Purposes Program using a ‘Claims and Supports’ Approach. Refereed paper presented at the 10th Pacific Rim First Year in Higher Education Conference, 2007.

– Gelder, T. van, Teaching Critical Thinking: Some Lessons from Cognitive Science. 2005. College Teaching, 53,1, pp. 41-46. (2005). For a map of the conclusions/lessons of the article see here .

Dutch translation: Het doceren van kritisch denken. Lessen uit de cognitiewetenschap.  For a map of the conclusions/lessons of the article in Dutch, see here.

– Gelder, T. van, What is Argument Mapping? 

– Gelder, T. van, Bissett, M., Cumming, G., Cultivating Expertise in Informal Reasoning. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 2004, 58:2. Research on the importance of ‘dedicated practice’ for the development of critical thinking skills.

– Gelder, T. van., Using argument mapping to improve critical thinking skills. The Palgrave Handbook Critical Thinking in Higher Education. Edited by Martin Davies and Ronald Barnett. 2015.

– Mara Harrell (Carnegie Mellon University) is doing research into the influence of argument mapping on the development of critical thinking skills in her own practice as a lecturer philosophy at Carnegie Mellon. See her list of publications here.

– Rider, Yanna; Thomason, Neil (2008), Cognitive and Pedagogical Benefits of Argument Mapping: L.A.M.P. Guides The Way to Better Thinking . Knowledge Cartography, Advanced Information and Knowledge Processing. Springer-Verlag London.

 The Monash Critical Thinking Study, 2004-2007.

‘Many people reason poorly, by almost any measure of reasoning. Although there is evidence that people can be taught to think critically, educators don’t really know how. They don’t know what works, what doesn’t, or why. This report describes the Monash Critical Thinking Study – a three year project to investigate the effectiveness of a number of teaching methods for improving critical thinking.’